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What is Artificial Intelligence and how it can be integrated in the workplace

What is Artificial Intelligence and how it can be integrated into work processes? Is it possible to talk about an human replacement? Over the past few years, AI has established itself as the subject of discussion within companies, which emphasize their ability to solve numerous problems. Some many voices and opinions that have spread around the concept of Artificial Intelligence, whose opportunities have been highlighted, but also the risks and fears.

Over the past few years, artificial intelligence has been imposed as a topic of discussion within the company, which emphasizes the ability to solve numerous problems.

Some many voices and opinions are widespread around the concept of artificial intelligence, whose opportunities have been highlighted, but also the risks and consequent fears.

What is Artificial Intelligence

In general, AI – Artificial Intelligence can be defined as a part of Information Technology focused on creating intelligent machines that emphasized and reacts like humans.

Specifically, in the literature, there are different perspectives and expectations of the AI ​​concept. Artificial Intelligence.

The complete attempt to systematize these requirements can be traced back to Stuart Russel and Peter Norvig (2003), who identified and arranged these descriptions into four categories.

These four use categories:

 – systems that they regard as human beings;

 – systems that consider rationally;

 – systems that act like human beings;

 – systems that act rationally.

According to the authors, these categories coincide with different phases of the historical evolution of the A.I.

The turning point of artificial intelligence was identified in 1950 with Turing’s reflections, which suggested the possibility of setting up a computer capable of behaving intelligently.

To evaluate the intelligence of a machine, Turing suggests the use of a test (known as the Turing Test), which uses humans as a term of comparison (Russel and Norvig, 2003).

The computer is considered intelligent when the (human) interrogator is unable to distinguish whether the answers that are presented before are given status or not by a person (Russel and Norvig, 2003).

The expression Artificial Intelligence will be sent for the first time alone in 1956 by John McCarty during a conference at Dartmouth (Russel and Norvig, 2003).

AI in philosophy: strength and weakness

In defining the AI ​​- Artificial Intelligence, another aspect to consider concerns the distinction between strong and weak Artificial Intelligence.

This distinction was also expressed by a part of philosophy, which questions the relations between the human mind and the artificial mind.

 Generally speaking, based on shared definitions:

– A.I – Weak Artificial Intelligence simulates the functioning of some human cognitive functions and is connected to the fulfillment of a particular task (Russel and Norvig, 2003);

– the A.I – Strong Artificial Intelligence emulates more completely the functioning of the human mind, resulting in autonomous and able to act like a human being (Russel and Norvig, 2003).

Artificial Intelligence in movies is scary

Also during the twentieth century, the AI ​​- Artificial Intelligence (forte) also found a concrete representation in the products of the Cultural Industry, such as books and films, which tried to reflect on the complicated relationship between men and AI.

From an analysis of the cinematographic production, it is possible to underline how the Artificial Intelligence has been represented in the most different roles and forms, starting from simple computers able to understand the human language to androids able to prove real feelings.

Among these cinematographic products, it is possible to quote the film Odissea Nella Spazio of 1968 where the A.I – Artificial Intelligence is represented with the character of HAL9000, a computer able to understand and interact with human beings. These behaviors are, therefore, clearly reflected in the categories identified by Russel and Norvig (2003).

In the Space Odyssey, the man-AI conflict is partially tackled, stopping at the representation of Artificial Intelligence as support to man, but ready to become an enemy when it is threatened.

The conflict of this relationship emerges even more clearly in the 1973 film Westworld.

Westworld brings to the stage a growing sense of anxiety and fear towards intelligent machines, which will become a real threat to man and his safety during the narration.

The conflict between the man-AI relationship is even more extreme in other film products, such as Blade Runner (1982) and Terminator (1984).

These products make the rebellion and danger of intelligent machines the central focus of their narration.

Can AI replace humans?

Over the years, the myths and fake news related to the AI ​​and its relationship with man have multiplied.

Among the motivations of this scenario, we can refer precisely to the diffusion of films, centered on a conflictual relationship between human beings and Artificial Intelligence, forgetting to explain also the benefits of AI.

Even within the scientific and academic literature, various voices have supported the idea of ​​a possible replacement of man by the AI.

This perspective was opened by Simon in the text The shape of automation for men and management (1985), claiming that intelligent machines would be able to perform any task performed by man.

This belief was not lost during the twentieth century, but on the contrary remains strong even today, reflecting in the unfounded people’s fear of being quickly replaced by robots, able to carry out their work in a more efficient and less costly way.

In literature, however, it is also possible to consider a contrary and more conciliatory position, which assumes that man and machines can collaborate in making a decision.

The decision-making process of the AI: the analytical approach and the intuitive approach

In the decision-making process (i.e., the decision-making process, which results in an exact choice among many alternatives) the analytical and intuitive approach can come into play.

The analytical approach implies the rational and logical processing of information, and it is precisely in this process that Artificial Intelligence can intervene.

The intuitive approach can be observed in the taking of intuitively decisions, guided by one’s “sixth sense,” but also by creativity and imagination.

According to the literature, it is these personal qualities and components that constitute the real advantage of a man concerning AI, making it irreplaceable.

Within organizations, this means that Artificial Intelligence can be used, for example, in the predictive analysis (which through data analysis makes it possible to predict future scenarios).

Intelligent machines use a statistical and data-driven approach, i.e., based on data analysis and interpretation.

As a result, they can propose new ideas or even identify relationships and correlations between different factors.

In general, this makes clear the existence of a relationship between Artificial Intelligence and Big Data, i.e., large amounts of data that can be stored and subsequently analyzed by machines.

An intervention of this type by Artificial Intelligence simplifies the work of man but does not involve a total windfall of Artificial Intelligence, deprived of experience and of a personal and intuitive judgment that characterizes the human being.

Based on this, the idea of ​​a synergistic relationship between the human being and Artificial Intelligence is proposed in the literature.

In other words, man and the AI ​​can work together, combining the speed of AI in gathering and analyzing information with human intuition.

However, the human decision will have the final decision, especially in situations of uncertainty, characterized by sick information, which prevent the correct intervention of Artificial Intelligence.

Sources: https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/bushor/v61y2018i4p577-586.html


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